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Xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx x 1918, xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx, xxx Xxxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxxxx xxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxx xx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx 14 xxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx.

Optakten til 1. Verdenskrig
Xxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx 20. xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx x 1914 xxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx, xxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxx 19. xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxx Xxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx x 1789 xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx x 1914. Xxx 19. xxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx, xxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx.
Xxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxx, xxx x xxx xxxx xxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxx, Xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx x xxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx, xx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx x Xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxx 1815 xx Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx x 1853. Xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx, xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx. Xxx x xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx-Xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxx. Xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxx Xxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx x xxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx Xxx xxxxx Xxxx x 1871, xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx x 1861 (xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x 1870 xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxx). Xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxxxx Xxxxxxx, Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx (xxxxx 1867) xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx.
X xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxx 19. xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx. Xxx Xxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx x xxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx. Xxx xxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx, Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx, xxxx Xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, Xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx. Xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxx xx x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x xx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxxx Xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxx xxxx 1. xx 2. Xxxxxxxxxxxx.


Xxx 28. xxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxx Xxxxxxxxx (1863-1914) xx xxxx xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxx x Xxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxx (Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxx) xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxx xxxxx Xxxx. Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxx xxx 28. xxxxx 1918.

Xxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx x xxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxx xx xxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxx xx Xxxxxx, xxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x 1820’xxxx, xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxx xxx. xxxx. Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx-Xxxxxxxxxxx x 1908 xxxxx Xxx xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx. Xx xxxxxxx, xx Xxxxxxx-Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxx xx Xxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x xxxx 1914, xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxx xxxxx Xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx-xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx, Xxxxx Xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxx xxxxxxx Xxx xxxxx Xxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxx xxxx.

En ny form for krigsførelse
Xxxx x Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxxxxxx 1914, xx xxxxx xxxxxx xx xx xxxx, xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx 28. xxxx 1914 xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx x xx xxxxxxxx xxxx. Xxxxx xxx xxx 23. xxxx xxxxxx-xxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxx Xxxxxxx xx xxxxx xx 48 xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxxx-xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx.


"Xxxxxxx xx xx"
Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx ("xxxxx xxxxxxx"), xxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xx 48 xxxxx. Xxx xxx xx xxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxx-xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx. Xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxx (25. xxxx) xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx. Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx

Xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxx 28. xxxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxx-xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx, xx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx, xx xxx 3.-4. xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx x Xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxx xxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx Xxxxxx, xx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxx Xxxxx, xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx x xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xx XXX, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xx Xxxxx xxx 23. xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxxx, xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxx.


X Xxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx Xxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx 1914. Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x xx xxxx, xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx, xx xxx xxxx xx xxxxx xxxx. Xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx.


Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx. Xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx 22. xxxxx 1915 xxx xx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxx Xxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx, xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx x xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx, xx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xx "xxxxxx". Xx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx x 1915

Xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxx Xxxxxx, Xxxxx xx Xxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxx. X xxxxxxx 1916 xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxx XXX, xxx Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx, xx Xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx x xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx 10. xxxxxx 1917 xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx, Xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx x xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx (xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx). Xxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxx. Xxx 29. xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx xxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x xxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx.


Xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx x 1917
Xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx: Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x 1917. Xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxx Xxxxxxx 2.x xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx, xx xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx (xxxxxxxxxxxxx) xxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx. X xxxxxx 1918 xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx x xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxx, xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx x xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxx

Xx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx x 1917, xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xx Xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xx xxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxx. X xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx x xxxxx xxx Xxxxxxx 2. xxx xx xxxxxxxx. Xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx, xx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx, xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx x xxxxxx, xxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx xxx 1. xxxxxxx 1917 xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x-xxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xx XXX, xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxx xxxxxx xx xx xx Xxxxxx xxx x xxxxxx. Xxxxx xxx XXX xxx xxx 6. xxxxx 1917 xx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxxx.


X xxxxxxx 1917 xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx x-xxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx x xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xx XXX xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xx xxx x xxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxx Xxxxxxxx xxxx XXX. Xxx xxxxxxx xxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxxxxx Xxxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxx, Xxx Xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx, xxx Xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx x Xxx xxxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxx x xxxxxx xx xxx 19. xxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx xxx 3. xxxxxxx 1917, xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx 6. xxxxx 1917

Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxx 1918 xx xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxx (xxxxx-xxxx), xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx Xxxx (1851-1929) x xxxx-xxxxxx 1918 xxxxxx Xxxxx xx Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxx xxx, xx xx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx 14. xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx-xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx. X xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xx 14 xxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx x-xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx x xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxx Xüxxxxx xx Xxxxxx. Xxxxxxx 2. xxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxx (1865-1939). Xxx xxxx xxxxxx xx xx xxxx xxxxxxxx, xx xxx 11. xxxxxxxx 1918 xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxx-Xxxxxxx xxxx Xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (4. xxxxxxx 1918). Xxxxxx Xxxx 1. xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxx, xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxxx, xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx (30. xxxxxxx 1918). Xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxx, xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx, xx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx.

Wilsons 14 punkter
Xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx 14 xxxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx.
Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx x 1912, xx xxx xxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx. X xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx, xxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx. Xxx xxxxx, xx XXX xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx x xxxxxx. Xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxx-xx-xxx-xxxxx xxxx xxx 8. xxxxxx 1918. Xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxx 14 xxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxx; xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx; xxxxxxxxxxx; xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx; Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx; Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx; xxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx; xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx; xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx; xxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx, Xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxx; Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxx-xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx; xxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxx; xx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx.


Xxxxxx xx xx "14 xxxxxxx"
Xx 14 xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxx 8. xxxxxx 1918. Xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx 5. xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx - xx xxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx x Xxxxxxx, Xxxxxxx, Xxxxxxxx, Xxxxxxx, Xxxxxxxxxx xxxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxx 14. xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxx,xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx.Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx; xxx xxxx xxx xxx x xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx

Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx 14 xxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx 19. xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx, xx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Xxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x xxxx xxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxx 1918, Xxxxx Xxxxxx x xxxx 1918 xx Xxx Xxxx x xxxxxxxxx 1918. Xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx Xxx xxxxxxxxxx Xxxx (1648), xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

Krigens mål og hemmelige aftaler
Xxx 18. xxxxxx 1919 xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xx 27 xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx. Xxxxxx x Xxxxx (Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx) xxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xx xx 14 xxxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxx xxxxxxx (xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx) xxx xx xxxxx x xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxx xx xxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx.


Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx, xx xxxxx Xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxx xxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx, xxx Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, Xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxx 1914. Xxxx xxxxxxxxx xx, xx xx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x 1915 xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Xxxxxxxx) xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx/Xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx. Xxxxx xx x Xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx, xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx, xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxxxx. X 1916 xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxx-Xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx. Xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxx, Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx.


Xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx X.X. Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxx 1916 xxx 1918, xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxx. Xxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx xxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

X 1917 xxxx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx-xxxxxxx xxxxxx, xxx xxxxx, xx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx x xxxxxxxx xx xx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxx ”xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx”. Xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxx, xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxx xxx Xxxxxx. Xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x, xx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx Xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxx-Xxxxxxx-xxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxx, xx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxx.
Xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx xxx xx xx xxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx (xxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx). Xx xxx xx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx, xx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx.


Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx 28. xxxx 1919, xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx, Xxxxx xx Xxxxéxx xxx Xxxxxxx, Xxxxx, Xxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxx xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxx. Xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx x 1924 xxx Xxxxxxx

Xxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx 26 xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxx 28. xxxx 1919 xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xx xxx xx xxxxxx. X Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxx, xxxxxx xxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx, xx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
X xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx x xxxxx xxx xx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx, xxx Xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxx, xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxx XXX xxxx xxxxxx.

Demokratiets sejr?
Xx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xx xx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. X xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx, Xxxxxxx, Xxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx x 1914 xxxxxx Xxxxxx xx 17 xxxxxxxxx xx 3 xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx x 1919 xxxxxxx xxx 13 xxxxxxxxxxx xx 13 xxxxxxxxx. Xxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxx ”xxxxxxxxxxxxxx” xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xx, xx éx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xx éx xxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxx, xx xxxxx xx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxx xxx, xx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx. Xx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx x Xxxxx x 1918. Xxx xxx xx xxxx, xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx, xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxx. Xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxx, xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxx 20. xxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx.
Xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx. Xx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx x Xxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x, xx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx. X xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxx. Xxx xxxxx xxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxx xx xx xx xxxxxxxx x xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx.
Xx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx xx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxx x xx xxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x 1919. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxx x 1910, xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxx xx x xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx. X xxxxxx 1919 xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx Xxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxx 1. xxxxx 1919 xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxx 14 xxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx XXX xx xxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx. X xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx, xx Xxxxx xxx xx xxx xx Xxxxx.


Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx 1910 xxxxx xx xxx xx Xxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxx 14 xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx

X Xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xx xxx xxxx xxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxx x xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxx xx xxxxx xxxxx xx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx x xxxxx 1919 xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxx. Xxx 13. xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx 15.000 xx 20.000 xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx x xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx. Xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxx xxxx xxxx, xxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx X.X. Xxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x xxxx 1.000 xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxx xxxxxx. Xxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxx. Xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx x xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx x xxxx Xxxxxx xx Xxxx.
Xxx xxxxxx xxx Xxxx xxxx xx xxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxxxxxx x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx x Xxxx. Xxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxx Xxx Xxxxxx, xxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx x xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx.


4. xxx-xxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx

Xx xx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. X xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxx xx xxxx xxxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx 5. xxx 1919. Xx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxx x xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx 16. xxxx xxxxx xx xx xx xxxxxxxxx, xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx (237 xxxxxx xxx, xxxx 138 xxxxxx xxxx). Xxx 28. xxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxx Xüxxxx xxxx xxxxxx- xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxx.


Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxx

Xx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx Xxxxxx-Xxxxxxxx, Xxxxxx, Xxxxxxxxxxxx, Xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxx-Xxxxéxx, Xxxxxxxxxxx, xxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx x 15 xx, xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx xx 100.000 xxxx, xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xxxx xx Xxxxxxxx, xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx, xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.


Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx Xxxxxxx (Xxxxxxxxx)

Xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (231), xx Xxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx x xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xx xxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxx Xxxxxx xx Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx, xxxx xxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx.

Kritik af samfundsordenen
Xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx. Xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx 10 xxxxxxxxx xxxx, xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxx xxx 20 xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxx, xx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx.
Xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxx xxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx. Xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xx xxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx.
Xx xx xx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxx Xxxx, xxx xxxx xxxx x 1893 xx xxxx xxx 4. xxxxxxxx 1918. Xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxx, xxxx xx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxx x xxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxx xx xxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx Xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx, xxx xx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxx Xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx ”Xxx xx xxxx xx xxxxxxxx”. Xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxx Xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx (”Xxx xx xxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xx xxx xxx xxxx”). Xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx, xx xxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxx xx xxxxx xx xx xxx xxx xxxx, xxxxxxx x xxx xxxx xx xx xxxxxxx xxxxx, xx xxxxxx xx x xxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Xx xxxxx xxxx xx Xxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxx Xxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxxx x 1914 xx xxxx x xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx. Xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx, xxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Xxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx. Xxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx. Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx. Xxx xxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx Xxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx; xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx. Xxx Xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx, xx x xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx xxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx (xxx. ”xxxxxx”). Xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx, xx xx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxx, xxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx x xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxx.


X xxxxxx "Xxx Xxxxxxxxx xx xxx Xxxxxx" xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx, xxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx Xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx (xx xx xxx xxxxx xx xxx) xx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx. Xxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xx xxx xxxxx, xxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx. Xxxxx xx xxxxxx Xxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx

Xxxxxxx Xxxxx xxx xx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxx Xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxx, xx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxx Xxx Xxxxxxxxx xx xxx Xxxxxx xxx 1930 (xxxxxxx xxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx Xxxxxxxxxxx), xxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx x xxx xxxx xxx, xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xx xx xxxx x xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxx. Xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx, xxx x xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxx Xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx, xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx, xxxxxxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx.

Den kulturelle kritik af samfundet
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxx xxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xx xxxx xx xxx xx xxx xxx xxxxxx. X xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx, xx xx xxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxx x xxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx.
Xxx xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx x 1918 xx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx, xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxx xxxx, xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xx xxxxxx xxxxx ”xxxxxxx” xx xx xxxxxxx ”xx, xx”. Xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx x xx xxxxxx xxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx.


Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xx Xxxxxx Xöxx (1889-1878). Xxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxx x xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx, xxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx Xxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxx xx xxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxx xx xxxxx xxx "Xx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx" xx xx xxx 1919. Xxx xx xx xxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx "xxxxxxxxxx", xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx xxx x xxxxxxxx xxxxxxx. Xöxx xxx xx xx xx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xx xx Xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx 1930'xxxx xx 1940'xxxx

Xxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx xxxxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxx xx Xxx Xxxx, xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx, xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxx. X xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx x Xxxxxx, xxxxxx xxxxx Xxxxxx, Xöxx xx xxxx Xxxxx, xxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx.


Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxx X.X.X.X.X (1919)
X.X.X.X.X. xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxx Xxxx, xxxxxx Xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx. Xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx x 1919 xx xxxxxx xxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxx, ("Xxxx x xxxxx xx xxx"), xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx "Xxx xxx xx xxx xxx"

Xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx, xx xxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx. Xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx, xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xx xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxéxxxxxx (xxx. ”xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxx”). Xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx Xxxxé Xxxxxx, xxx xxx xx xxxx xx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx. Xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx, xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx, xx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxxx.
Xxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxx (1904-1989), xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx x 1929. X xxxxxxxxxxx xx 1930’xxxx xxxxxx xxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx. X 1938 xxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxx.


Xx Xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx (1937) xx Xxxx Xxxxxxxx. X xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxx, xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxx xx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx? xxxxx xx xx xxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxx xxx? Xxx xxxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxx xx xxxxxx xxxxxxx.

X 1909 xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xx Xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx, xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx-xxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx. Xx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xx xx xx xxx x xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx x Xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx, xxxx xxx x Xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx, xxxx xxx x Xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Xxxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx, xxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx.

Publikationsår: 2013

Arbejdsspørgsmål:

1. Xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx?

2. Xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx? Xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxx?

3. Xxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx? Xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx.

4. Xxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx xxxx ”Xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx” xxxx Xxxxxx Xxxxxxx ”Xxx Xxxxxxx”

5. Xxxxxxx xxx Xxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx?

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Xxxx, Xxx
USA går ind i Første Verdenskrig x Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxx: Xx Xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx
Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx, 2017

Xxxx, Xxx
Amerikanerne går i krig. Mobiliseringen og krigen i Europa x Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxx: Xx Xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx
Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx, 2017

Xxxx, Xxx
Krigen på Østfronten. Den ukendte Krig x Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx, 2017

Xxxx, Xxx
Første Verdenskrig x Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxx: Xx xxxxxx xx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx, 2013

Xxxx, Xxx
Første Verdenskrig x Xxxxxx x xxx 20. xxxxxxxxxx
Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx, 2013

Xxxx, Xxx
Tyskland og 1. Verdenskrig x Xxx Xxxxxx Xxxx: Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxx
Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx, 2013

Xxxx, Xxx
Weimarrepublikken og Hitler x Xxx xxxxxx Xxxx: Xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxx
Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx, 2013

Shevin-Coetzee, M. og Coetzee, F.
Xxxxx Xxx X xxx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx: X Xxxxxxxxxx
Xxxxxxxxx, XX: X.X Xxxxx xxx Xx., 1995
Xx xxxxxxx xx xx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx

Stachan, Hew
Xxx Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx xx xxx Xxxxx Xxxxx Xxx
Xxxxxx: Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxx, 1998

Fussel; Paul
Xxx Xxxxx Xxx xxx Xxxxxx Xxxxxx
Xxx Xxxx: Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxx, 1975
Xxxx Xxxxxx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx, xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxxx (xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx).

Keegan, John
Xxx Xxxxx Xxxxx Xxx
Xxx Xxxx: Xxxxx, 1999
Xxxxx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x xxxxx xxx xx xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx.

Owen, Wilfred
Xxx Xxxxxxxxx Xxxxx xx Xxxxxxx Xxxx
Xxxxxx: Xxxxxx & Xxxxxx, 1965
Xx xxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx xxxxx, xxxxxxxxxx "Xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx"

Erich Maria Remarque
Xxx Xxxxx xx xxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx (xxxxx)
Xxx Xxxx: Xxxxxxx, 1995

Maria Remarque, Erich
Xxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx (xxxxx)
Xxxxxxxxxxxxx: Xx Xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx
Xxxxxxxxx, 1985
Xx xxxxxxxxx xx 1. Xxxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx

Boemeke, Manfred (red)
Xxx Xxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxxxx: X Xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxx 75 Xxxxx
Xxxxxxxxx: Xxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxx, 1998
Xxxxx xxx xx Xxxxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Nicolson, Harold
Xxxxxxxxxxx, 1919
Xxx Xxxx: Xxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxx, 2001 (xxxxxxx x 1933)
Xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx xxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x Xxxxxxxxxx, xx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Freud, Friedrich
Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxx Xxxxxxxxxxx
Xxx Xxxx: Xxxxxx, 1989 (xxxxxxx x 1930)
Xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxx xx xx xxxx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxx, xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx

Nietzsche, Friedrich
Xxxxxx Xxxx xxx Xxxx
Xxx Xxxx: Xxxxxxx, 1989

Nietzsche, Friedrich
Xxxxxxxx xxxx xx xxxx
Xxx Xxxxx Xxxxxx, 2002
X xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx

Gay, Peter
Xxxxx: X Xxxx xxx Xxx Xxxx
Xxx Xxxx: Xxxxxx, 1988
Xxx xxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx Xxxxx

Stuart Hughes, H.
Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx Xxxxxxx: Xxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxxx Xxxxxx Xxxxxxx, 1850-1930
Xxxxxx' xxxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxx x xxx 19. xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxxx x xxx 20. xxxxxxxxxx

Gay, Peter
Xxxxxx Xxxxxxx: Xxx Xxxxxxxx xx Xxxxxxx
Xxx Xxxx: X.X.: Xxxxxx & Xxx, 1968
Xxxxx Xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxxx xxx xx xxxxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxx x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxx




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